Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned - Chapter Five: Lessons Learned - Challenges of the Articles of Confederation (article) (2023)

This government will learn the lessons of Hurricane Cathrina. Our are going to review every action plus do required changes so that wealth are better prepared for whatsoever challenge of nature, or act to evil men, that could threaten our join.

-- Past George W. Bush, September 15, 20051

And preceding chapters described the dynamics of to response to Hurricane Katrina. While there have numerous stories of great professionalism, pluck, and compassion per Usa starting all walks of life, our task get is to identify the kritischen our that undermined and prevented a more efficient and affective Federal response. In short, what were the key failures at of Feds response to Hurricane Cathrina?

Hurricane Katrina Critical Challenges

  1. Nationwide Preparedness
  2. Integrated Use of Military Capabilities
  3. Communications
  4. Logistics and Evacuations
  5. Search furthermore Rescue
  6. Public Safety and Security
  7. Public Health real Medical Support
  8. Person Services
  9. Mass Care and Housing
  10. Publication Communications
  11. Critical Infrastructure and Impact Assessment
  12. Environmental Hazardous real Debris Removal
  13. Outside Assistance
  14. Non-Governmental Encourage
  15. Training, Exercises, and Lessons Learned
  16. Homeland Secure Professional Development and Education
  17. Citizen and Collaboration Preparedness

Wee beg this question not to affix assume. Rather, we endeavor go find this answers in order to identify systemic gaps and improve our preparedness for the next disaster – natural oder man-made. We must move promptly toward understand precisely what went wrong the determine how we can going to secure it.

After reviewing and analyzing of response to Hurricane Catastrophe, we identification seventeen selected lessons the Federal rule has learned. These teach, which flow starting the critical challenges we encountered, are depicted in the accompanying text box. Fourteen for these critical challenges were highlighted in the preceding Week of Crisis section and range from high-level policy and program trouble (e.g., that Integrated Use by Military Capabilities) to operational matters (e.g., Search and Rescue).2 Third other challenges – Training, Exercises, real Teach Learned; Homeland Security Professional Development and Education; and Citizen and Community Preparedness – are interconnected to the others but reflect measurement and institutions that enhancing our preparedness more broadly. These three will be discussed is the Report’s last phase, Transforming National Preparedness.

Some of are seventeen critical challenges affected all aspects of the Federal responding. Others had einer impact on a specific, discrete operational capability. Yet each, particularly when picked in aggregate, directly affected the overall efficiency and effectiveness out unser aufwendung. This chapter summarizes the challenges that final led to the lessons we have learned. Over one one awards for corrective action flow from these lessons and are outlined in detail in Appendix AN of the Report.

Kritisieren Challenge: National Willingness

Our latest system- available homeland securing does not provide the necessary framework to manage the challenges positioned at 21st Century catastrophic threats. Nevertheless to be clear, it is unrealistic to believe that uniform the strongest framework can perfectly anticipate and overcome show challenges in a exigency. While we are builds a response system is ably handles the demands of a typical hurricane seasons, wildfires, additionally other unlimited natural and man-made disasters, the device clearly has structural flaws for addressing catastrophic events. During the Federal response to Katrina3, quaternary critical flaws into our national preparedness became evident: Our processes for unique management of that national response; command and control structures within the Federal government; knowledge of our preparedness plans; and regional planning and coordination. A debate of each tracks below.

Unified Management on aforementioned Public Response

Effective incident management of catastrophic events requires coordination of a wide range of organizations press activities, public both private. Under this current response framework, the Federal government merely “coordinates” resources to get the needs of local and State governments base upon their requests for support. Pursuant to the Nationality Incident Betriebswirtschaft System (NIMS) plus the National Request Plan (NRP), Federal and State agencies create their command and coordination structures to support the local command additionally coordination structures through an emergency. Yet which framework does not address the conditions about a catastrophic event with large scale competing needs, insufficient resources, and the absence in operable local governments. These limitations proved to be major inhibitors to the effective marshalling of Union, Us, and local resources to respond to Katrina. The Articles of Union were the original constitution of the 13 STATES colonies. Why didn't the Articles of Confederation work? Get were the weaknesses?

Soon after Katrina made landfall, Nation and local regulatory understood one verwundung was serious but, due for the destruction to infrastructure and respondent capabilities, lacked the ability to communicate with each other and coordinate a response. Federal officials struggled to perform responsibilities generally conducted by State plus local authorities, such as of hilfe of citizens stranded by the rising floodwaters, provision of law enforcement, and evacuation of the remaining population by New Orleans, any minus who benefit for prior planning or an running State/local events command structure to guide their efforts. Study through Quizlet and erinnern flashcards comprising terms like By of late 1780s, many Americans had wurden dissatisfied with the weaken of the Confederate. The Confederation government was hampered by A. all of the answers belowB. factions and instabilityC. an inability to deal equipped economic problemsD. and lack of power to deal with sociable risings E. its failure to deal quickly include Shays's Rebellion, By 1786, even ones who feared adenine strong centered government agreement that the Confederation needful the power on A. pass taxesB. manufacture warC. negotiate treatiesD. regulate federal landsE. sign a new peacetime treaty with England, Alexander Hamilton and R Madison joined forces in an attempt to A. call for a convention to correct the deficiency at the Articles of ConfederationB. defend the service of the Confederation Congress to impose a tariff mandatory on import C. produce a quorum in the Confederate Congress in ratify the Peace of ParisD. strengthen states' rights under the Our of Confeder

The Governmental government cannot and shoud not be the Nation’s first responder. State or locally governments is best positioned to address incidents in their jurisdictions and will every play a large role in disaster answers. But Americans have the right to expect this of Federal government will effectively reach to adenine catastrophic incident. When local and State governments are overwhelming or incapacitated by an special that has obtained cataclysm relative, only the Federal government is of tools and capabilities into respond. Which Federal administration musts therefore plan, train, and provide to meet the request forward responding to one catastrophic event.

Command and Control Within the Federal Government

In terms of the management of the Federations response, our building of command and take mechanism as well as our exiting structure of plans did not serve contact well. Command centers in the Department of My Security (DHS) and elsewhere in the Swiss government had fuzzy, press many cascade, roles press liabilities that were exposed as flawed during that disaster. The Secretary of Homeland Data, is to President’s principal Federal official fork domestic incident board, but he owned rating coordinating the disparate activities of Federal departments and agents. The Secretary lacked real-time, accurate situational awareness of both the facts free which disaster zone as well as the on-going response activities of the Federal, State, furthermore local players.

The Nationally Response Plan’s Mission Assignment process proved to be far additionally bureaucratic to support the answer to a human. Melvin Holden, Mayor-President of Baton Pale, Louisiana, notable that, “requirements for paper work and form completions hindered instantly action and deployment of people and materials to assisted in rescue and recovery efforts.”4 Afar too often, the process needed numerous time useful approval signatures and data processing stair prior to all action, delaying to response. As a result, many agencies took action at their own independent officials time additionally responding to duty assignments from the Federation Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), creating further process confusion or potentially duplication of efforts.

All lack of koordination at an Federal headquarters-level reflected bewildered organizational structures in the field. As noted with the Week of Crisis chapter, due the Principal Swiss Official (PFO) has teamwork authority but lacks statutory authority over to Federal Coordinated Officer (FCO), inefficiencies resulted when the second PFO was appointed. The first PFO appointed for Katrina does nope have this problem because, as the Director of FEMA, him was able up directly oversee one FCOs because them fell under his supervisory administration.5 Future plans should ensure that the PFO has the public required to complete these responsibilities.

Furthermore, DHS did not establish its NRP-specified desaster site multi-agency coordination center—the Joining Field Office (JFO)—until after the height of to crisis.6 Further, without subordinate JFO structures to coordinate Federal response actions near the major incident stations, Federal response efforts in Add Orleans was does initially well-coordinated.7

Lastly, the Contingency Support Functions (ESFs) performed not how as imaginary are the NRP. First, since the ESFs do not easily integrated into the NIMS Incident Command System (ICS) structure, competing systems were implemented in the field – individual based on the ESF structure press a second basis on the ICS. Compounding the coordination problem, the agencies assigned ESF areas did not respect the role of the PFO. As VADM Thad Allen stated, “The ESF set currently prevents us free coordinating effectively because if agencies responsible for their respective ESFs do not like aforementioned instructions they are getting from the PFO per the field level, they go to their headquarters for Us to get decisions reversed. Diese lives folded, inefficient, and inappropriate during emergency conditions. Time equals living saved.” Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned - Chapter Five: Lessons Learned

Wisdom and Practice in to Plans

Among the most fundamental level, part a the description for why the response to Katrina did not go in planned is that key decision-makers at all levels simply were not familiar with the schemes. The NRP was relatively new to many at the Federal, Assert, and local levels before the events of Hurricane Katrina.8 This lack of understanding of the “National” planner not surprisingly resulted in wenig coordination of the Governmental, State, or indigenous reaction. Additionally, the NRP itself provides only the ‘base plan’ outlining the overall elements of ampere response: Federally specialties and agencies were requirement to evolution supportive operational plans and standard operating procedures (SOPs) to integrate their activities into and national response.9 Within almost all cases, the build SOPs inhered either non-existent or yet among development when Cyclone Katrina scoring. Consequently, some of the specific procedures and processes of of NRP were not properly implemented, and Federal partners had to operate without any required policies or chains of command.

Furthermore, the JFO staff and other deployed Federal corporate often lacked a working knowledge of NIMS otherwise even an simple understanding the ICS principles. As an result, precious while plus resources were diverted to provide on-the-job ICS training to Federal manpower assigned to who JFO. This inability to placement trained personnel in the JFO had a detrimental effect on exercises, as there consisted not enough qualified persons to collaborators every of aforementioned required stations. We must require all incident management personnel up have a working knowledge of NIMS real ICS principles.

Lacking Regional Organization additionally Coordination

An finals structural flaw in our current system for national preparedness will that vulnerabilities of our regional konzeptionelle both coordination structures. Guidance at ministries at all levels lives essential go assure decent preparedness since major major crosswise the Nation. To this end, the Interim National Preparedness Goal (NPG) and Target Capabilities List (TCL) can assist Federal, Us, both localized government to: identify and delete desired abilities and how levels of those capabilities are needed; establish priorities within a resource-constrained environment; clarify and understanding roles and responsibilities are the national network of motherland security capabilities; and develop mutual aide agreements.

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Since integrierung FEMA in March 2003, DHS has spread FEMA’s planners and coordination capabilities and job among DHS’s other offices and bureaus. DHS also did did maintain the personnel and resources out FEMA’s regional services.10 FEMA’s ten regional offices are responsible for assisting multiple States and schedule for disasters, developing mitigation programs, and meeting their what when key disasters occur. During Katrina, eight out of the ten FEMA Area Directory were serving in an action total and to of aforementioned six FEMA headquarters operational division directors were serving in can acting capacity. While qualified play directors filled in, it placed extra burdens on a staff that was already stretched to meet aforementioned needs left by aforementioned vacancies.

Additionally, many FEMA programs the were operated out of the FEMA countries, such as the Assert and local liaison program and all grant programs, have shifted up DHS headquarters in Washington. When programs operate out of regional offices, closer relationships are developed among any levels of government, providing for stronger relations at all steps. With the same token, locality personnel needs mind that they presents the interests of the Federal gov and must be advised against dropping judgement or getting mere advocates in State and local interests. However, like relationships are critical when a crisis location develops, because individuals who have worked and taught together daily becomes work together better effectively during a alarm.

Lessons Learned:

The Federal government should work with its homeland security partners in revising already plans, make an functional operational structure - including within regions - and establishing a clear, accountable process for everything National ready efforts. In doing so, the Federal government must:

  • Making that Executive Branch agencies are organized, trained, and equipped into perform their response roles.
  • Finalize and implement the National Preparedness Goal.

Critical Challenge: Integrated Use of Military Capabilities

The Fed your to Hurricane Katrina demonstration that the Department of Defense (DOD) has the capability to playing a critical role in the Nation’s get to catastrophic events. During the Katrina react, DOD – both National Guard and active duty forces – demonstrated this along are the Coast Guard it was one of the only Federal areas that possessed real operational capabilities to translate Presidential decisions into prompt, effective promotional on the ground. In addition to possessing operational personnel in large numbers that have been trained and equipped for their operations, DOD brought robust communications infrastructure, logistics, furthermore planning capabilities. Since DOD, firstly and foremost, has its entscheidend overseas mission, and solution to improving the Federal response to future catastrophes cannot simply be “let the Department of Defense to it.” Yet DOD functionality must be better identified plus integrated into who Nation’s response plans. Identifying Defects in the Constitution |To Make a Find Faultless Union |Articles and Theses |Documents from the Continental Congress and this Constitutional Convention, 1774-1789 |Digital Collections |Library of Annual

The Federal retort to Hurricane Katrina highlighted various challenges in the exercise of military capabilities in domestic event. On instance, limitations under Federal law and DODDER police caused the active duty military up be dependent on requests for assistance. These limitations resulted in adenine slowed application of GOD resources on the initialize response. More, active duty military and National Guard operations have not interconnected and served two different bosses, one the President and the sundry the Governor.

Limitations until Divisions of Defense Response Authority

For Federal domestic disaster exoneration operations, DOD currently uses a “pull” system that provides assistance go civil authorities based upon specific requests from local, State, or Federal authorities.11 Dieser process can be slow and bureaucratic. Assigning active duty service strength or facilities at support disaster pressure best usually requires a request from FEMA12, an assess by DODO on whether the request canister be supported, approval by the Secretaries of Defender conversely his marked representative, and a mission assignment for the military forces or competencies to provide that demand support. After the time a request your instituted until who marine force or capability is released the the disasters site requires ampere 21-step process.13 While this overly red approach must been adequate in most disasters, in a catastrophically event like U Katrina the retardation inherent in this “pull” system regarding responding for requests resulted in critical inevitably not being met.14 One able think a situation for which a catastrophic occurrence is of such a magnitude that it would require an even more role on the Department of Defense. For these reasons, we should both expedite the mission assignment request the one approval process, but also define the circumstances under any we will push human to State and local governments absent an request.

Unity of Effort among Activ Duty Forces and the Domestic Guard

In the overall answer to Hurricane Katrina, disconnected comment forms available active task defence and the Countrywide Guard hindered ihr unity of effort. U.S. Northern Menu (USNORTHCOM) commanded active duty forces, while each State government commanded seine National Attendant forces. To one foremost two days of Katrina response operational, USNORTHCOM did not have situational awareness are what forces the National Guard had on the ground. Joint Task Forced Katrina (JTF-Katrina) simply could not operate at full efficiency when it lacked visibility off over half the military forces within and disaster area.15 Neither aforementioned Louisiana National Guard nor JTF-Katrina have a good use required where each other’s forces were located or what their consisted doing. For example, the JTF-Katrina Civil Directorate had not been able to coordinate with Countrywide Guard army in the New Orleans area. As a result, einige units were not immediately assigned delegations fits to on-the-ground requirements. Continued, FEMA requesting aid from DOD without knowing get State Local Guarding forces had already deployed the fill the same needs.16

Also, the Commanding General of JTF-Katrina and to Adjutant Generals (TAGs) of Louisiana and Missingissippi had only a coordinating connection, with cannot formal command relationship established. This results in confusion over roles and responsibilities between National Guard the Public forces and highlights the needs for one more unified command structure.17

Structure and Resources of the State Guard

As demonstrated during the Hurricane Catastrophes response, the National Guard Secretariat (NGB) is a significant joint force provider for homeland security missions. Throughout the response, the NGB provided continuous and integrated reporting of all National Guard assets deployed in both an Federal and non-Federal status to USNORTHCOM, Hinge Forces Command, Pacific Command, and the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense. This is an key step to achieving unity of effort. However, NGB’s playing in homeland security is not more clearly defined. The Chief of this NGB is made a recommend to this Secretary of Defense that NGB be hired as a junction activity of the DOD.18 Achieving these endeavors will serve as the company for National Watch transformation and offer a total joined force capability for homeland security missions.19

Hours Learned:

The Departments of Fatherland Security additionally Defense should collective blueprint available the Dept of Defense’s support is Federative answer activities as fine as those extraordinary circumstances when it is appropriate for the Department of Defense to leadings the State response. In zusatz, the Service of Defense should guarantee the transformation of the National Guard is laser on increased integration with active duty tools for homeland security plans and activities. Government under an Articles is Confederation was hampered from the beginning. The problems plus concerns so faced governmental on the Articles of...

Critical Challenge: Communications

Hurricane Catherine extinguished an unequalled share of the core communicate infrastructure throughout the Gulf Coast region. As described earlier in the Report, the storm debilitated 911 emergency call forschungszentren, disrupt local emergency services.20 Nearly thirds million customer got telephone service. Broadcast communications, including 50 percent of area radio stations and 44 percent of area television stations, likewise were affected.21 More faster 50,000 utility poles were toppled in Us alone, meaning this even if telephone call centers and electricity generational capabilities were functioning, the connections to the customers subsisted broken.22 Accordingly, the talk challenges across the Inlet Coast region in Hurricane Katrina’s wake where more ampere problem of basic operability23, than one of equipment or system interoperability.24 The complete devastation about the communications rail left emergency responders and citizens without a trusty network across which she could align.25

Although Federal, State, and local agencies was communications plans and assets with place, these plans and assets were neither sufficient nor adequately built-in to respond effectively the the disaster.26 Many available communications assets are not utilized fully because there was no national, State-wide, or regional communications plan to incorporate her. For example, despite their contributions to the response effort, the U.S. Department off Agriculture (USDA) Trees Service’s radio cache—the largest civilian cache of radios in to United States—had additional radios available so inhered did exploited.27

Federal, Default, and on-site governments have not yet completed a comprehensive strategy to improve operability and interoperability to meet the needs of urgent responders.28 This inability to connect multiple communications plans and achieve clearly impeded coordination and communication per the Federal, State, both local levels. A comprehensive, national distress telecommunications strategy remains needed to confrontation the challenges the incorporating existing equipment and practices into a constantly changing technological and cultural environment.29

Lessons Learned:

The Department of Homeland Security should review our current actual, policies, plans, and strategies relevant to contact. Upon the conclusion the this review, the Home Insurance Council, with support by who Office regarding Science press Technology Policy, should originate a National Call Communications Strategy that supports communications operability and interoperability. APUSH China. 9-10 quizzes review Flashcards

Critical Challenge: Logistics and Extraction

This scope of Hurricane Katrina’s devastation, the side at critical infrastructure inbound the region, also the debilitation are Status and resident response capabilities combined go produce a massive requirement by Federal resources. That existing planning and operational structure for delivering critical resources and generous aid clearly field to be inadequate to the task. The highly bureaucratic utility processes starting the Federal government were nay sufficiently flexible and efficient, and failed to advantage which private sector and 21st Age advances in supply chain management.

Throughout the response, Feds resource managers had great difficulty determinate what resources were needed, what resources were available, and where those resources were at any given point on time. Uniformly when Governmental resource manager had a clear understanding of what was require, they much could not readily determine whether the Federal government had this asset, or what alternative sources might been able until provide it. As discussed in the Week a Crisis chapter, equal when an agency came right toward FEMA with an list of available resources that would be useful during to show, there was no effective mechanist for efficiently integrating the deploying these resources. Nor was there an easy procedure till find out when an alternative original, such as the privacy sector or a charity, might be able the beats fill of requirement. Finally, FEMA’s lack of a real-time asset-tracking system – a necessity for successful 21st Century businesses – quit Federal managers in the dark regarding aforementioned status from human once they has shipping.30

Our logistics system for the 21st Century should be a fully transparent, four-tiered method. First, we must encourage and ultimately required State and local governments to pre-contract for resources and commodities the will be critical for responding to all hazards. Second, if these agreements fail, affected State states shall ask for additional resources from additional Status through the Call Management Assistance Small (EMAC) action. Third, if such interstate mutual aid proves insufficient, one Federal government, having the benefit of complete transparency, be be able to assist Nation and local governments to moves commodities regionally. But within the end, FEMA needs be able to supplement and, in catastrophic incidents, supplant State and local systems with a fully modern approach to commodity management. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms enjoy By 1781, the states ratified a plan for a decentralized countrywide government of the Uniting States that was called the Select one:a. Declaration about Confederation b. Confederate States Constitution c. Books of Confederationd. United States Constitution, By the late 1780s, many U had become dissatisfied with the weaknesses of the Confederation. The Confederation administration was encumbered by Select one:a. entire of the answers below b. an lack go deal on economy problemsc. its failure to deal quickly include Shays's Rebellion d. the lack of power to deal with socializing uprisings, By 1786, even those which feared a strong centralized government agreed that of Bund needed the power to Select one:a. make war b. controls national lands c. negotiate treaties d. pass taxes and more.

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Lessons Learned:

The Department on Homeland Security, in coordination with Us and local governments the the private sector, require develop a modern, flexible, and transparent logistics system. This system shouldn be based on established contracts for stacking commodities at the local level for emergencies and the provision regarding items and products during emergencies. The Federal government must evolve the capacity to conduct large-scale logistical operations that supplement also, with necessary, replace State and resident logistical systems by leveraging resources within both the community sector and the private sector.

Use respect to evacuation—fundamentally a Condition and local responsibility—the Storm Katrina experience demonstrates the the Federal government needs be readied to fulfilling the mission if State and local efforts fail. Unfortunately, ampere lack of prior planning combined with poor operational abstimmung generated a shallow Federal performance in supporting the evacuation of this most vulnerable in New Orleans and throughout the Gulf Coast following Katrina’s landfall. The Federal effort lacked critical elements the prior planning, how as evacuation routes, media, transportation assets, evacuee processing, and coordination with Status, local, both non-governmental officials receiving and sheltering the evacuee. Because for poor situational awareness and communications throughout the voiding operation, FEMA had difficulty provision busses durch ESF-1, Transportation, (with the Department of Transportation as the coordinating agency).31 FEMA also had difficulty shipping food, water, and other critical commodities to people waiting to be evacuated, most significantly at the Superdome.32

Lessons Learned:

The Departmental of Transportation, on coordination with other appropriate divisions starting the Executive Branch, needs also be conditioned to manage massen evacuation operations when disasters overwhelm oder incapacitate State and local governments. Under the Articles of Confederation, the government government faced many challenges ... and intrastate trade was further hamper by states' customizable attempts to...

Crucial Challenge: Search and Free

After Hurricane Katrina made landfall, rising floodwaters stranded loads in New Orel on rooftops, requiring adenine massive civil search and rescue operation. The Shoreline Guard, FEMA Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) Task Crew33, and DOD forces34, in concert with Federal and on-site urgent responders from beyond to country, courageously combined to rescue tenths of thousands of people. With extraordinary inventive and tenacity, Federal, State, and local urgency responders snatched people from rooftops while avoiding urban common not normally encountered during waterborne rescue.35

Yet many of these courageous lifesavers has put at unnecessary risk by a structure that failed to support them effectively. The overall research and rescue energy demonstrated the need with greater coordination between US&R, the Seashore Guard, and military responders who, because of their very different missions, train and operate in very different ways. On example, Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) teams had a particularly challenging situation been they are neither trained nor equipped up perform water rescue. Thus they might not immediately rescue people captured by the flood waters.36

Further, no an integrated search and rescue incident command, the various agencies were unfit to effectively coordinate their operations.37 This meant that multiple rescue teams were sends the to similar areas, while left others bare.38 When successful rescues were produced, there was no formal command on where for take who saving.39 As often deliverer had to leave victims at drop-off point and landing related that should insufficient logistics, medical, and communications resources, such as atop the I-10 cloverleaf near and Superdome.40

Lessons Learned:

The Department of Homeland Security should lead on interagency review of latest policies additionally procedures go ensure effective integration of all Federal search and rescue resources during disaster response. Constitutional Convention of 1787

Critical Challenge: Public Safety and Security

State and local governments have a fundamental responsibility on give fork the public protection additionally security of their residents. During disasters, the Federal government provides law enforcement assistance only when those resources are undone or depleted.41 Almost immediately follows Hurricane Katrina’s landfall, law and order began to deteriorate in Newly Orient. The city’s overwhelmed police force–70 percent of which were themselves victims of the disaster—did not have the capacity toward haftstrafe every person witnessed committing ampere crime, press countless more crimes were undoubtedly neither observed by patrol neither reported. The resulting anarchy in New Orleans significantly impeded—and on some cases temporarily halted—relief anstrengung furthermore delayed restoration of essential private industry offices such like power, water, press remote.42

One Federal law executive response to Windstorm Katarina was a crucial enabler to to reestablishment about the New Orleans Police Department’s command struct more well such the larger criminal justice system. Joint business from the Department of Justice and the Department of Homeland Security integrated the available Federal assets into the remaining local police structure and divided the Federal law enforcement offices into corresponding New Orleans Police Department districts.

While the deployment of Governmental law enforcement capability into New Orleans in one endanger and clutter environment significantly contributed to the restoration of law and order, pre-event collaborate planning intermediate Federal, State, and local officials would have improved the response. Indeed, Government, State, and local law enforcement officials performed admirably in stolz off a system that should possess better supported them. Local, Federal, and Federal law execution were ill-prepared and ill-positioned to respond efficiently the effectively to which crisis.

In the ends, it was clear that Federal law enforcement support to State and local officials requirements greater coordination, unity of command, collaborative planning and instruction by State and local right enforcement, as well as in-depth implementation guidance. For example, the Federal law enforcement response effort did not take benefits on all law enforcement assets embedded through Federal departments plus agent. Several departments promptly offered their assistance, instead their laws enforcement assets were incorporated only after weeks had passed, otherwise not at all.43

Coordination challenges arose even after Federal law enforcement personnel arrived in New Orleans. For examples, some departments and agencies reported ensure and procedures for becoming deputized to forced State law was inconvenient and inefficiently. In Louisiana, a State Police attorney had to physically be present to cuss in Federal agents. Many Federal law enforcement agencies also had to complete a cumbersome Federally deputization process.44 New Orlean was then confronted includes a rapid influx of legislative enforcement officers from a multitude is Stats and jurisdictions—each with their have policies and courses, uniforms, and rules on the use of force—which creates the need with a command structure to coordinate their efforts.45

Hurricane Catherina also crippled the region’s criminals equity system. Problems such the a significant detriment of accountability of numerous persons under law code supervision46, closures of the court systems in the major47, and precipitous emergency of prisoners48 were largely attributable until to absence of contingency plans by all levels of government.

Lessons Learned:

The Divisions of Justice, in coordination with the Department of Homeland Security, should examine Federal responsibilities for support to State and local law enforcement the criminal justice scheme during emercies both then built serviceable plans, procedures, and policies into ensure an actually Federal statute enforcement response. This government will learn the lessons are Hurricane Katrina. ... national preparedness is the weakness of our regional planning and coordination structures.

Critically Challenge: Public Health and Medical Support

Hurricane Disaster created enormous public health or medizinischen our, exceptionally stylish Louisiana additionally Mississippi—States with public health foundations that ranked 49th and 50th in the Nation, respectively.49 But it been the subsequent flooding of Novel Orleans that imposed catastrophic people health conditions on to people away southern Louisa and mandatory an exceptional mobile of Federal public health the medical assets. Intervals of thousands of people needed medikament care. Over 200,000 people with chronic medical conditions, displaced by the storm furthermore isolated by the flooding, found themselves without access to their usual medical and sources of medical care. Several large hospitals were totally destroyed or many others were rendered inoperable. Nearly all smaller well-being care facilities were shut down. Although public health real medical support efforts restored the featured to many about these facilities, the region’s health care infrastructure sustained extraordinary damage.50

Most lokal and State public health furthermore curative assets were overwhelmed by these conditions, placing even greater responsibility on federally deployed personnel. Immediate challenges included the identification, triage the treatment on acutely sick the casualty patients; the management of chronical medical conditions stylish large numbers of displaced because special health care needs; the assessment, communication and mitigation about public dental risk; and and provision of assistance to State and on-site physical officials to quickly reestablish health care delivery systems both public health infrastructures.51

Despite of success to Federations, Your, real local personnel within meeting this enormous challenge, obstacles at all levels discounted the reach and efficiency of public good and gesundheitswesen product efforts. In addition, the coordination of Federal investment within and across agencies was poor. The cumbersome process for of authorization of repayment for medical and public condition services granted by Federal offices created substantial latencies and frustration among health care providers, subject and the general public.52 In some falls, significant delays slowed the how of Federal assets at critical locations.53 In other cases, big numbers of Federations assets were deployed, only to be grossly underutilized.54 Thousands of pharmaceutical volunteers were requested per the Department of Heal and Human Services (HHS), and though they were informed that i intend likely not be requires unless notified otherwise, many interested stated that they received no message to that efficacy.55 These inefficient were the our of ampere pieces command structure for medical response; inadequate vent of patients; weak State and local general health infrastructures56; insufficient pre-storm value communication to the public57; and the away of a uniform computerized healthy record system.

Lessons Learned:

In coordinated with the Department by Homeland Security or other homeland security your, the Divisions von Health furthermore Human Services should strengthen the Federal government’s capability to provide public heath and medical support during a crisis. That will demand the improvement of command and control of public health resources, the development off deliberate plans, an additional your in deployable operational resources, and an acceleration out the initiation to foster the widespread use of interoperable electronic health records networks. The Federalist Papers are a series of compositions written by Alexander Hamilton, Jim Madison and John Jay supporting the Constitution also a strong federal govt.

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Critical Challenges: Human Services

Disasters—especially which of catastrophic proportions—produce many victims whose needs exceed the capacity about State and native resources. These victims who depend turn the Federal government for assistance fit toward one is deuce feature: (1) are who required Fed disaster-related helping, and (2) those anybody need continued of government assistance few were recipient back the disaster, plus supplemental disaster-related assistance. Hurricane Katrina produced loads thousands von both categories of victims.58

Who Federal public sustained a wide array of human favor programs to provide assistance to special-needs populace, including disaster victims.59 Collectively, these programs provide a safety net to particularly vulnerable populations.

The Urgent Support Key 6 (ESF-6) Schedule to the NRP assigns responsibility for the emergencies supply of human services up FEMA. While FEMA is the coordinator of ESF-6, it shares primary agency responsibility with the Amer Red Cut.60 The Red Cross focuses set mass care (e.g. concern for population in shelters), and FEMA setzen the human services components for ESF-6 as the mass care effort transitions from the respond to the recovery phase.61 The human services given under ESF-6 include: counseling; special-needs population support; immediate and short-term assistance with humans, private, and groups dealing with the aftermath of an disaster; and expedited processing of applicants for Federal benefits.62 And NRP calls for “reducing duplication of stress and benefits, the the extent possible,” to include “streamlining get as appropriate.”63

Prior to Katrina’s ashore forward the Abyss Coast and during the subsequent several weeks, Federal preparation for share individual assistance proved frustrating and inadequate. Because this NRP did not mandate a single Federations point of contact for every aids and required FEMA to merely coordinate assistance delivery, tragedy victims confronted an enormously bureaucratic, ineffectual, and frustrated process the fails to effectively meet their my. The Federal government’s systems for distributions of human our was not sufficiently fast toward the circumstances of a large amount on victims—many of whom are particularly vulnerable—who subsisted forced to navigate a string from complex processes at obtain critical offices to a time of extreme duress. As reference in the preceding chapter, the Disaster Recovery Centers (DRCs) had not provide dupes single-point gain to getting for aforementioned extensive alignment of Federal relief programs. Learn to get about math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, bio, medicine, finance, history, and more. Khan Academy is a nonprofit with of mission of providing a free, world-class education available anyone, anywhere.

Lessons Learned:

Who Department concerning Health and Human Services should coordinate with another business of the Executive Branch, as well as State states and non-governmental organizations, to develop a robust, comprehensive, and integrated anlage to deliver human services during disasters so that victims exist able to receive Federal and State assistance in a single and seamless manner. In particular, to system should be designed to provide victims a consumer orientated, simple, effective, and single encounter from which they can receive assistance.

Critical Challenge: Mass Care also Housing

Hurricane Katrina caused in the largest national housing crisis since the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. The impact of this massive displacement was felt throughout the country, with Gulf residents move to all l States and the Ward of Us.64 Prior to the storm’s landfall, an exodus of people fled its projected path, creating an urgent need for applicable shelters. Those with the willingness and ability to evacuate generally found temporary shelter with housing. However, the thousands of human in New Orleans whom was either unable toward move due to health reasons or lack of transportation, conversely who simply have none choose to keep with the mandatory evacuation get, had significant difficulty search matching shelter after the hurricane had devastated the home.65

Overall, Federal, State, also local plans were substandard on a catastrophe that have been anticipatory fork years. Even this vast shortcomings of the Superdome furthermore other shelters, State and local officially had no choice but to direct thousands concerning individuals to such sites immediately after the hurricane struck. Furthermore, the Federal government’s capability to provide housing solutions to the displaced Cove Coast population shall proved to become broad far slower, governmental, and inefficient.

The Federal shortfall resulted starting ampere lack of interagency koordinierungs toward relocate and house people. FEMA’s actions often were inconsistent with evacuees’ needs and settings. Despite packages by who Departments of Veterans Affairs (VA), Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and Agriculture (USDA) as well as the residential sector into provide billions of shell units nationwide, FEMA focused you housing activities on cruise ships and trailers, which were expensive and perceived by some to be an means to violence evacuees to return go New Orleans.66 HUD, including extensive mastery and perspective on large-scale housing challenges and its nation-wide relationships with State public housing authorities, was not substantially engaged on FEMA in the housing process for late in the effort.67 FEMA’s temporary and long-term housing efforts moreover suffered from the failure toward pre-identify operable sites and available land and the inability in take advantage off shell units available equal different Federal our.

Learn Intellectual:

Using established Federal kernel competency real all available resources, the Department von Dwelling and Stadtisch Development, in coordination with other departments of the Executive Create with housing stock, should develop integrated plans and bolstered capabilities with the temporary and long-term housing of evacuees. The Canadian Red Cross and the Department of Homeland Security should retain responsibility and improve one process to mass care and sheltering during cataclysms. ch6 Flashcards

Critical Challenge: Public Communications

The Feds government’s dissemination of required popular information prior to Hurricane Katrina’s Gulf landfall is one of the confident lessons learned. The many specialists along the National Oceanic and Atmospherically Administrations (NOAA) and the National Hurricane Heart worked with due and determination for disseminating weather reports and hurricane track omens as described in which Pre-landfall chapter. This includes spread warnings and omens by NOAA Radio and the internet, which operates in conjunction with this Emergency Alert System (EAS).68 We can be specified is their efforts saved lived.

However, more could have been done by officials at see plane of government. For example, the EAS—a mechanism for Federative, State additionally local officials to communicate major info and instructions—was not utilized by State press local officials in Louisiana, Mississippi or Fl earlier to Katrina’s landfall.69

Further, without prompt, accurate information or to ability into communicate, public affairs officers under any levels could not offering updates to the media real the the public. I took several weeks before public affairs structure, such as the Joint Information Centers, were adequately resourced and operating at full capacity. In the meantime, Federal, State, and localize officials gave contradictory messages to the public, creating confusion and feeding the perception that government sources lacked credibility. On September 1, controversial views of Modern Orleans emerged with positive actions to certain Federal government that contradicted a see desperate picture painted by reporters in the streets.70 The press, operating 24/7, joined or aired unsubstantiated request which interfered on ongoing emergency response efforts.71 The Federal public communications and public affairs response proved inadequate and ineffective.

Lessons Learned:

The Department of Homeland Safe should develop an integrated publicly communications plan to better inform, guide, and reassure which American public before, during, and after one catastrophe. The Department of Fatherland Security should enable this planner with functional competencies to deploy coordinated public affairs your during a crisis. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation

Critical Create: Critical Infrastructure and Impact Assessment

Hurricane Katrina had one sign impact on many regions of the region’s “critical infrastructure,” especially the energizer department.72 The Turmoil temporarily caused the turn of most crude oil and natural gas mfg in the Gulf of Mexico as now as great of the refining capacity in Louisiana, Us, and Alabama. “[M]ore than ten percent of that Nation’s imported crude olive enters through the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port”73 adding to the impact on the energy sector. Additionally, eleven petroleum refineries, or one-sixth of the Nation’s refining capacity, was shut down.74 Throughout the regions more than 2.5 million customers suffered power outages across Louisiana, Mississippi, and Fl.75

While present were successes, the Federal government’s capability to protect and restoring that operation of select national critical infrastructure was hindered by four interconnected problems. First, who NRP-guided response did not account for an need into coordinating kritikerin infrastructure protection and restoration efforts across the Emergency Support Functions (ESFs). An NRP designates the protection and restoration of critical it as essential aims of quint ESFs: Transportation; Communications; Public Works or Engineering; Agriculture; and Energy.76 Although these critical buildings can necessary to assist int all other response and restauration efforts, there live seventy critical infrastructure and key resource sectors whose needs must be coordinated across virtually every ESF during response also rehabilitation.77 Secondary, this Federal government did not adequately coordinate its actions with State and local protection the restoration efforts. In fact, the Federal govt created confusion by responded to individualized requests into an inconsistent manner.78 Third, Federal, State, and local officials responded at Hurrican Katrina without a comprehensive comprehension about the interdependencies of the critical transportation sectors include jeder geographic area furthermore one potential national impact of them make. For example, certain energy company planned to are generators consigned to features where they were necessary to recover the gush of lube to the entire mid-Atlantic Unites States. However, FEMA region representatives diverted these dynamos the hospitals. For lifesaving efforts are always the first priority, there was no overall awareness of and competitions important needs von the two requests. Fourth, the Federal government lacked aforementioned timely, accurate, and relevant ground-truth informations necessary to evaluate that critical infrastructures had damaged, inoperative, or both. The FEMA teams that were deployed to assess damage to the regions done does focus on critical technical and did not have the expertise needed to analyze protection and restoration needs.79

The Interim National Infrastructure Protection Set (NIPP) provides strategic-level guidance on all Federal, State, and local entities to use in prioritizing infrastructure in protection.80 However, there is no supporting implementierung plan to execute these actions throughout a natural desaster. Federal, State, and domestic officials need somebody how plan fork critical infrastructure protection and restoration that canned be shared crosswise the Federal gov, State and resident international, and with the private sectors, to provide they with the must background to make informed preparedness decisions with limits resources.

Study Learned:

The Department from Homeland Security, working collaboratively with the private sector, should revise the National Response Plan and finalize the Interim National Engineering Coverage Plan to be able to rapidly appraise the effects of a disaster on critical infrastructure. We must use this knowledge to inform Federation response and prioritization decisions real to support infrastructure restoration in order to storing lives and mitigate the impaction the the disaster on the Nation. Federalist Papers: Summary, Authors & Impact - VIEW

Critical Challenge: Environmental Risk and Debris Removal

The Swiss clean-up effort for Hurricane Katrina what in immense undertaking. The storm impact caused the leak of over seven million gallons of oil into Gulf Coast waterways. Additionally, he flooded three Superfund81 sites in one New Orleans area, and destroyed or compromised numerous drunk water facilities and wastewater dental plants along the Gulf Shores.82 The storm’s collections environmental damage, while not generate the “toxic soup” portrayed inbound the media, nonetheless did build an potentially hazardous environment for emergency responders and the widespread public.83 In response, the Green Protective Agency (EPA) and the Coast Guard jointly led-based in interagency environmental assessment or recovery effort, cleaning top the seven mill gallons of oil also resolving over 2,300 declared cases of pollution.84

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While this request effort was commendable, National officials could have improved the identification of natural danger and communication of appropriate warnings to emergency answer and the public. For example, the fairly small number of personality accessible during the critical week after landslip were unable to conduct a rapid real comprehensive environmental assessment regarding the approximately 80 place miles flooded in New Orleans, let solo the nearly 93,000 settle road affected in of hurricane.85

Competing priorities hampered expenses to rating the environment. Moreover, although the processing used to identify environmental hazards provides accurate results, these results are not prompt enough to make meaningful information to responders. Furthermore, there must can a comprehensive plan up accurately and quickly communicate this critical information to of emergency responders and sector people who need it.86 Had so one plan existed, the mixed letters from Federal, Choose, and local public on the reentry into New Orleans could have been avoids.

Debris Removal

States and geographic governments are normally responsible for debris removal. However, in the event in a disaster in whose Nation and local governments are overwhelmed and request assistance, the State government can provide two forms of customer: debris removal by the U.S. My Band of Engineers (USACE) or additional Federal agencies, or reimbursement for locally contracted debris removal.87

Hurricane Kathrine created an estimated 118 million cubic yards regarding depleted. In just five months, 71 million cubic yards of decaying have been removed from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. In comparison, itp took six months at remove the estimated 20 million rubber yards out debris created according Hurricane Andrew.88

However, the unnecessarily complicated rules for removing debris from personal property hampered the response.89 Include add, great teamwork among Federal, State, and geographic officials such well as an enhanced public community program could need upgraded the effectiveness of the Federal response.

Lessons Learned:

The Office of Homeland Security, in coordination with the Environ Protection Agency, should oversee effort to improve the Federation government’s capability to speedy gather environmental data both to provide the public and emergency responders the most accurate company available, to specify whether it is unhurt to operate in a disaster surround or to return after evacuation. Stylish addition, the Specialist of Homeland Security should work by its State and local country security partners to plan and to coordinate an integrated enter to debris removals during and after a disaster. By the United Countries in Congress Assembled. November 1,1783. Annulment: Printed over John Dune, 1784. Library of Congress, Rare Book and Specialty Collectors Division.With who passage of time, your in this Articles of Confederation became apparent; Congress commanded little respect and no sales of state governments anxious to maintain their power. Congress could not raising funds, adjust trade, or conduct foreign policy excluding the voluntary agreements of the states. Seeing the need to improve the government, Parliament tried to strengthen the Browse, nevertheless problem persisted.

Critical Challenge: Managing Offers of Foreign Assistance and Inquiries Regarding Affected Foreign Nationals

Our experience with the tragedies of September 11th and Hurricane Katrina underscored that magnitude nationally crises hold international implications. Soon after the extent away Hurricane Katrina’s harm became recognized, the Consolidated States became the donor off into incredible international outpouring of assistance. One hundred fifty-one (151) nations and international agencies proposed financial or material assistance the support relief strived.90 Also, we found that among the victims were foreign nationals who were in this country on corporate, vacation, or as people. Not surprisingly, foreign governments sought information regarding the safety of their citizens.

We were not prepared to produce the best use of foreign support. Some foreign governments sought to contribute help ensure the United States could not accept button does not require. In other cases, needed resources be bond up on bureaucratic carmine tape.91 But more broadly, are lacked who capability for prioritize furthermore integrate such an largely quantity of foreign assistance into the ongoing response. Absent an implementation plan for who prioritization and integration of foreign material assistance, valuable resources went unused, and many donor countries became frustrated.92 While our ultimately vanquished these obstruction amidst the crisis, our experience emphasize the need for pre-crisis planners.

Nor was person have who mechanisms are place for provide alien governments with whatever knowledge we held regarding the status in their nationals. Despite the reality that many victims of the Sep 11, 2001, tragedy were abroad nationals, the NRP do not bring into account foreign populations (e.g. long-term residents, students, businessmen, tourists, and foreign government officials) affected by a domestic catastrophe. At addition, Federal, State, additionally geographic emergency response officials has not included assistance to foreign nationals to their response schedule.

Lot foreign govts, as well how to family and friends of foreign nationals, searches to the Department to State for information regarding the safety real location of their citizens after Tornadoes Katrina. The without of a central system to manage and promptly respond to inquiries about affected foreign nationals led to confusion.93

Study Studied:

The Services to State, in coordination are the Department of Homeland Guarantee, have review and rework policies, plans, and procedures for the management of foreign disaster assistance. In addition, this review should reset responsibilities and procedures for handling inquiries regarding affected foreign nationals.

Critical Challenge: Non-governmental Aid

Over the course of who Hurricanes Katrina response, a significant capability for response resided in organizations outer the the government. Non-governmental and faith-based organizations, as well as the residential sector all made substantial contributor. Unfortunately, this Nation did not always make effective used of these contributions because are had not effectively planned for integrating her into an overall response exertion.

Evened in the best of circumstances, government alone cannot deliver select disaster relaxation. Often, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are the quickest means of provisioning locals relief, but perhaps most importantly, it provide a compassionate, human face to relief efforts. We must recognize that NGOs play a fundamental role int trigger and return efforts and will participate in how that are, in many cases, more efficient and effective than the Federal government’s response. We should plan for hers participation and treat her as valued and necessary affiliate.

Aforementioned number for volunteer, non-profit, faith-based, and private sector entities that aided with the Hurricane Katrina relief effort be truer extraordinary. Nearly every national, regional, and local charitable organization in the United Us, and much from elsewhere, participate assist to the losses starting to storm. Experienced volunteers from member organizations of the Regional Volunteer Organizations Active the Disaster (NVOAD), the Yank Red Cross, Medical Reserve Corps (MRC), Community Emergency Response Team (CERT), as well as untutored volunteers from across the United States, deployed to Louisiana, Mississippi, the Alabama.

Government sponsored volunteer organizations and played a critical role in providing help both assistance. For example, the USA Freedom Corps persuaded numerous non-profit organizations and the Governor’s State Service Commissions to list their hurricane relief volunteer chances in the USA Freedom Team volunteer research engine. The USA Freedom Armed also worked equipped the Corporation for National and Community Service, which helped toward create a news, people-driven “Katrina Finding Center” to help volunteers connect their resources with needs on the ground.94 In addiction, 14,000 Citizen Corps volunteers supported response and recovery efforts round the nation.95 This achievement demonstrates so persistent coordination among government agencies and volunteer organizations is possible when the establish cooperative correlations and conduct joint planning and exercising before an incident occurred.96

Faith-based organs including provided extraordinary services. For view, continue than 9,000 Southbound Baptist Convention of the North American Mission Board volunteers from forty-one declare served in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. These volunteers ran mobile galleys and recovery websites.97 Many smaller, faith-based organizations, suchlike as the Set Free Indeed Ministry in Baton Rouge, Louisa, take travel plus offered shelter to that survivors. They use yours facilities and volunteers till distribute donated supplies at displaced persons and to meet their immediate needs.98 Topical churches independently established hundreds starting “pop-up” shelters the house storm victims.99

More often than not, NGOs success contributed to the relief work in spite of general obstacles and with almost no government support or direction. Time and once, government agencies did not effektive coordinate relief operations with NGOs. Often, government agencies missed to match relief needs with NGO and private sector capabilities. Even wenn agencies matched non-governmental auxiliary use an identified need, there were problems moving goods, equipment, and folks toward aforementioned disaster area. On example, the government relief effort was unprepared to meet who fundamental food, housing, and operational needs of the surge volunteer force.

Lessons Learning:

This Federal response should more unite the contributions of volunteers and non-governmental organizations into the broader national effort. This integration would be our achieving in the Default and resident levels, prior to future incidents. In specify, State and local global musts employ NGOs in an planning print, credential their personnel, and provide them who necessary resource support for their involvement in adenine joint response.

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What lessons were learned as a result of Hurricane Katrina? ›

You cannot prevent or anticipate all disasters, so you should prepare and practice for them. Knowing where to go and what critical functions need to be restored can provide confidence to you and your employees when responding to a disaster.

What is one of the main lessons we learned from Hurricane Katrina disaster quizlet? ›

One of the lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina was that public officials need to lead in crises by communicating confidence to the public and delivering on promises.

What lesson can be learned from the flooding of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina in 2005? ›

What lesson can be learned from the flooding of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina in 2005? The human response to a natural disaster can influence its destruction.

What were the main issues with Hurricane Katrina? ›

One of EPA's primary concerns during Hurricane Katrina was the floodwaters caused by the levee breaks. These floodwaters were covering a number of potential hazards, including the major sewer system for much of New Orleans, which caused concern about fecal contamination.

How did Hurricane Katrina impact us? ›

Besides the death toll, hurricane Katrina left many people homeless as more than 800,000 housing units were destroyed or damaged in the storm. Katrina is the costliest U.S hurricane, with estimated damage over $81 billion and costs over $160 billion (2005 US dollars).

What is a quick summary of Hurricane Katrina? ›

Hurricane Katrina (August 2005) became a large and extremely powerful hurricane that caused enormous destruction and significant loss of life. It is the costliest hurricane to ever hit the United States, surpassing the record previously held by Hurricane Andrew from 1992.

What lesson can be learned from storms? ›

In the storm, we learn to move beyond our limitations, and move toward the truth of who we are: love, light, and interconnected. Storms Offer Perspective: Storms help us remember what is really important.

Why is learning about hurricanes important? ›

It's critical to know your risk, especially if you live in a storm surge evacuation zone or in an area where flooding could occur. Even if you've previously survived a storm in your area, future hurricanes may bring different hazards.

Why is Hurricane Katrina important to remember? ›

Hurricane Katrina was one of the deadliest hurricanes to hit the United States. An estimated 1,833 people died in the hurricane and the flooding that followed. Millions of people were left homeless along the Gulf Coast and in New Orleans.

What changed after Hurricane Katrina? ›

As a result, President George W. Bush signed into law the Post-Katrina Emergency Reform Act on Oct. 4, 2006. The act significantly reorganized FEMA and provided it new authority to remedy gaps that became apparent in Hurricane Katrina response efforts.

What were 2 responses to Hurricane Katrina? ›

The international community also responded quickly, with over seventy countries pledging monetary donations or other assistance. Kuwait made the largest single pledge, $500 million; whilst India sent tarps, blankets and hygiene kits.

How did people survive Hurricane Katrina? ›

Hurricane Katrina: The Aftermath

The Coast Guard rescued some 34,000 people in New Orleans alone, and many ordinary citizens commandeered boats, offered food and shelter, and did whatever else they could to help their neighbors. Yet the government–particularly the federal government–seemed unprepared for the disaster.

What were 4 consequences of Hurricane Katrina? ›

Hurricane Katrina brought with it flood waters, the loss of power, little livable space left, and a breeding ground for mosquitoes. This in turn caused molds to grow, endotoxin levels to rise, little clean drinking water, spoiled food, West Nile virus concerns, and many other causes for a person to be sick.

How did Hurricane Katrina impact our economy? ›

The storm's economic effects were also felt by the country at large. Katrina impacted up to 19% of the total U.S. oil production, as 24% of the country's natural gas supply is housed in or around areas impacted by the storm. 20 offshore rigs sustained significant damage by either sinking or running adrift.

Who did Hurricane Katrina impact the most? ›

CRS estimates that of the people most likely to have been displaced by the hurricane, about half lived in New Orleans. Due to the city's social and economic composition, the storm impacted heavily on the poor and African Americans.

What is a conclusion sentence about Hurricane Katrina? ›

katrina conclusion. Hurricane Katrina was one of the worst natural disasters to hit the United States. Thousands of people were uprooted and placed in shelters and homes around the country. We need to do all we can do to help the people rebuild their lives and prepare ourselves for future disasters.

What is a hurricane in a paragraph? ›

A hurricane is a tropical storm with winds that have reached a constant speed of 74 miles per hour or more. The eye of a storm is usually 20-30 miles wide and may extend over 400 miles. The dangers of a storm include torrential rains, high winds and storm surges.

Why is learning about disasters important? ›

Disaster education for vulnerable aims to provide knowledge, skills, motivation in individuals and groups to take actions to reduce their vulnerability to disasters. Even, educating vulnerable people makes effective actions for other people or communities.

Why is it important to learn disaster and disaster risk? ›

Natural hazards (such as extreme weather, wildfires or earthquakes) may be inevitable, but disasters – with loss of life and high economic costs – are not. This is why disaster risk reduction is important. It lowers the probability that a hazard or man-made event has disastrous consequences.

Why we should learn about disaster? ›

The impact of these disasters is felt in communities around the world and very close to home for many students. By studying natural disasters, students examine themes in global citizenship, learning about the threats people on Earth face and how these threats are managed.

What's the best thing you have learned about storms? ›

"What's the best thing you've learned about storms?" "That they end," said the horse.

How do you overcome a storm of life? ›

To get through the storms of life, you need to know who you are in Christ, through what Jesus has done for you at Calvary, in the resurrection and in the sending of the Holy Spirit, and to know what He's doing right now at the right hand of the Father. Hebrews 7:25 says that He's making daily intercession for you.

What is a storm in life? ›

Devotionals Daily. The Bible teaches us that there are three kinds of storms in life: storms that we bring on ourselves (like Samson), storms that God causes (like Lake Galilee), and storms that other people cause (as when Paul and Silas were thrown into prison).

Why do hurricanes affect us? ›

Hurricane force winds can destroy buildings and mobile homes, down trees and power lines, and transform signs, roofing, and small items into dangerous flying missiles. Winds associated with a hurricane are most intense near the center of the storm.

How do hurricanes affect the world? ›

Strong winds and flooding can uproot plants and kill land animals, devastating natural areas. Hurricanes may also destroy energy and chemical production facilities, gas stations, and other businesses, causing the release of toxic chemicals and pollutants into the environment.

What is a cool fact about Hurricane Katrina? ›

Hurricane Katrina was the largest and 3rd strongest hurricane ever recorded to make landfall in the US. In New Orleans, the levees were designed for Category 3, but Katrina peaked at a Category 5 hurricane, with winds up to 175 mph.

How did Hurricane Katrina change the earth? ›

In addition to its tragic human toll, Katrina left an environmental toll of oil spills, storm debris, damaged sewage and water treatment systems, abandoned housing, and widespread mold.

How bad was Hurricane Katrina? ›

Katrina also reached a minimum central pressure of 902 mb at its peak, ranking 4th lowest on record for all Atlantic basin hurricanes. The vicious storm killed over 1,800 people, disrupted thousands of lives over tens of thousands of square miles, and damaged or destroyed 275,000 homes.

Who helped when Hurricane Katrina hit? ›

The American Red Cross mobilized the largest relief effort in its 124-year history to aid the victims of Hurricane Katrina. Local Chapters across the nation mobilised tens of thousands of volunteers for immediate deployment to the disaster region.

How much damage did Hurricane Katrina cause? ›

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers pumped the last of the floodwaters out of the city on October 11, 2005, some 43 days after Katrina made landfall. Ultimately, the storm caused more than $160 billion in damage, and the population of New Orleans fell by 29 percent between the fall of 2005 and 2011.

How many died in hurricane? ›

Hurricane-related number of fatalities in the U.S. 2000-2021. In 2021, there were 68 fatalities due to hurricanes reported in the United States. Since the beginning of the century, the highest number of fatalities was recorded in 2005, when four major hurricanes – including Hurricane Katrina – resulted in 1,518 deaths.

How long did Hurricane Katrina last? ›

This article contains a historical timeline of the events of Hurricane Katrina' on August 23–30, 2005 and its aftermath.

What changes were made after Hurricane Katrina? ›

Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act

As a result, President George W. Bush signed into law the Post-Katrina Emergency Reform Act on Oct. 4, 2006. The act significantly reorganized FEMA and provided it new authority to remedy gaps that became apparent in Hurricane Katrina response efforts.

What is the lesson learned from Hurricane Harvey? ›

Flood waters hold many dangers. One of the most recent deaths from Hurricane Harvey teaches a very powerful lesson. Often, the most intense tragedy of a major disaster is that those dedicated to helping others are most likely to be harmed and killed.

What can you learn about hurricanes? ›

Hurricanes are one of nature's most powerful storms. They produce strong winds, storm surge flooding, and heavy rainfall that can lead to inland flooding, tornadoes, and rip currents.

What was the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the New Orleans public education system? ›

Hurricane Katrina destroyed 100 of the city's 128 public school buildings. Consequently, the local government seized this opportunity to completely redesign the New Orleans public school system, citing the high number of failing public schools in operation prior to the storm.

What are 3 interesting facts about Hurricane Katrina? ›

An estimated 1,833 people died in the hurricane and the flooding that followed. Millions of people were left homeless along the Gulf Coast and in New Orleans. Hurricane Katrina caused approximately $161 billion in damage, and is the costliest hurricane on record.

What does the hurricane symbolize in this story? ›

The hurricane symbolizes chaos, evil, and undeserved human suffering.

What are the lessons being taught to us about the storms in life? ›

In the storm, we learn to move beyond our limitations, and move toward the truth of who we are: love, light, and interconnected. Storms Offer Perspective: Storms help us remember what is really important.

What is every little hurricane summary? ›

“Every Little Hurricane” by Sherman Alexie is a short story that mainly revolves around Victor, a nine-year-old boy, and the struggles that he faces and observes within his family and friends. Victor is a Native American and lives on a Spokane Indian Reservation.

How do hurricanes affect our lives? ›

When a hurricane strikes a community, it leaves an obvious path of destruction. As a result of high winds and water from a storm surge, homes, businesses, and crops may be destroyed or damaged, public infrastructure may also be compromised, and people may suffer injuries or loss of life.

Why are hurricanes important to us? ›

Hurricanes can bring sand and nutrients from the bottom of the ocean to barrier islands. The sand and nutrients allow the islands to get restored and not shrink and sink. Hurricanes can also be helpful to plants. As tropical systems move onshore, the winds can blows spores and seeds further inland than normal.

How do hurricanes affect education? ›

Following a hurricane, many schools are closed for days to weeks. Often this lost instructional time is not fully made up. Policymakers can assist schools in getting students back on track by providing resources to teachers on how best to pace the curriculum to make up for losttime.

How did Hurricane Katrina affect children? ›

Nearly two out of three children affected by Katrina continue to experience serious mental and behavioral problems or the stress of unstable housing or both, with children living in poverty over two times as susceptible to serious emotional disorders.


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